1.1.1 Introduction and research aims
Since the emergence of COVID 19 in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 the disease has been declared a global pandemic and has been associated with the deaths of more than 2 3 million people around the world. It continues to be a dynamic and evolving pandemic.
The first case in Africa was reported in Egypt on 14 February 2020 and cases have since been reported in all 55 African Union Member States. At the start of 2021
Africa faced a second wave, with far more reported cases and deaths than in the early months of the global pandemic. In addition, new virus variants have emerged.
Initial public health responses to control the pandemic focused on promoting protective behaviors among the general population, including frequent hand washing, physical distancing and the use of face masks in public spaces However, many saw these only as interim measures to reduce the spread of the virus and hopes for a return to a sense of ‘ rested on the development of a safe and effective vaccine.
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