This research aimed to (1) assess the extent to which mental health and psycho-social support (MHPSS) was included in the national response to the COVID-19 pandemic in African countries, and (2) explore barriers and enablers to MHPSS integration into the COVID-19 response. A mixed-methods study, using an online survey and in-depth interviews, was conducted. Participants included Mental Health Focal Points at the Ministries of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO) country and regional offices, and civil society representatives. Responses were received from 28 countries out of 55 contacted. The implementation level, based on standard guidelines, of MHPSS activities was below 50% in most countries. The most implemented MHPSS activities were establishing coordination groups (57%) and developing MHPSS strategy (45%), while the least implemented activities included implementing the developed MHPSS strategy (32%) and establishing monitoring and evaluation mechanisms (21%). Key factors that hindered implementing MHPSS activities included lack of political commitment and low prioritisation of mental health during emergencies, as it was seen as a “less important” issue during the COVID-19 pandemic, when more importance was given to infection prevention and control (IPC). However, there are signs of optimism, as mental health gained some attention during COVID-19. It is imperative to build on the attention gained by integrating MHPSS in emergency preparedness and response and strengthening mental health systems in the longer term.