Yellow Fever

Yellow fever virus

Yellow Fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted through infected mosquitoes. It was named yellow as it, sometimes, cause jaundice (yellow skin and eyes) to the infected people. Thirty-four African countries are endemic to yellow fever.

The incubation period for the virus is 3 to 6 days. Most people don’t experience symptoms. The symptoms are fever, muscle pain, backache, headache, loss of appetite, nausea, and/or vomiting. Within 24 hours, some patients might experience more severe symptoms. This is the toxic phase; high fever is experienced; Liver and kidney are affected; dark urine and abdominal pain and bleeding occur from the mouth, nose, eyes or stomach. Fifty percent of patients in this phase die within days (7-10).

There is no specific antiviral drug for yellow fever. Survival rates can be improved by hospital based early supportive treatment. However, there is a single dose effective vaccine for yellow fever that provides life-long protection. Vaccination is recommended for people 9 month or over living or travelling to yellow fever endemic areas. Some countries require the yellow fever proof of vaccination to allow entry (see list below for African countries).

Recent Outbreaks in Africa

Year Country Cases Deaths
2017 Nigeria 341 45
2016 Uganda 30 7
DRC 345 63
Kenya 2
Angola 847 345
2014 DRC 139 6
2013 Sudan 44 14
Cameron 2
Ethiopia 6
Chad 2
2012 DRC 1
Sudan 732 165
Cameron 23 7
Ghana 3 2
2011 Senegal 76 10
Sierra Leone 2
Côte d’lvoire 64 25
Uganda 226 53
2010 Senegal 2
DRC 11
Cameron 5
Guinea 1
Côte d’lvoire 10
2009 Central African Republic 4
Cameron 51
Liberia 1
Republic of Congo 1
Guinea 23
Sierra Leone 8
2008 Burkina Faso 2
Central African Republic 2
Guinea 14 1
Côte d’lvoire 9

African countries that requires Yellow Fever vaccination certificate

Countries that require vaccination for all travellers older that 9 months or 1 year:

Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameron, Central African Republic, Congo, Côte d’lvoire, DRC, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Niger, Togo.

Countries that requires vaccination for travellers from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission or transit for 12 hours in those countries:

Algeria, Botswana, Cabo Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Libya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.